Jaw bone pathology: Genetic and metabolic disease

Endocrine system

Secretion of hormones act on tissues as:

  1. Autocrine (same cell)
  2. Paracrine (cells in immediate vincity)
  3. Endocrine (distant cells via blood)

Hormones divided into:

  1. Signaling molecules (1st messengers act on cell surface receptors)
    • Peptides – Growth hormone, insulin
    • Amino acid derived molecules – epinephrine, histamine
  2. Steroids (diffuse across cell membrane and interact with intracellular receptors)
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Thyroxine
    • Retinoic aid

Feedback inhibition: Increased activity of target-tissues → act as stimulus to down regulate secretary glands

Major pituitary function – controlled by hypothalamus

Anatomical regionCell typeHormones secretedTarget organ
Anterior pituitary/adenohypophysisSomatotrophsGrowth hormone (GH)All body systems
Corticotrophs1.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3.Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Adrenal glands
Brain cortices
ThyrotrophsThyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)Thyroid glands
Gonadotrophs1.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
2.Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Posterior pituitary/neurohypophysisGlial cells/pituicytesOxytocinUterus, breasts
VasopressinLiver (glycogen breakdown)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)Renal system for fluid/electrolyte balance
Pituitary hormones

  1. Acromegaly
  2. Hyperparathyroidism
  3. Hypoparathyroidism
  4. Hypophosphatasia
  5. Hypothyroidism
  6. Infantile cortical hyperostosis – Caffey’s disease
  7. Osteitis deformans – Paget’s disease
  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta
  9. Osteoporosis
  10. Osteopetrosis
  11. Renal osteodystrophy and rickets
  12. Scurvy

Bone disease of unknown etiology: