Development of arteries

Source: Angiogenetic cells (mesodermal)

Continuation of the 2 endocardial heart tubes to form right and left primitive aorta

  • Which curve dorsally and continue as 2 dorsal aortas (dorsal to gut). Cranially are separate, caudally fuse to form a single dorsal aorta
  • And ventral to pharynx fuse – Aortic sac

The 2 dorsal aortas connect with the aortic sac via aortic arch arteries

These are 6 pairs of arteries that run in the 6 pharyngeal arches

Development of arteries
Development of arteries embryology
embryonic circulation
development of arteries embryology
embryonic circulation

Development of arch of aorta:

  • Proximal – Aortic sac stem
  • Middle – Aortic sac left horn
  • Distal – Left 4th aortic arch, lower left dorsal aorta

Recurrent laryngeal nerve:

  • Right and left vagi descend lateral to pharynx
  • Give recurrent laryngeal nerve
  • On right side, 5th and 6th arch disappear (6th arch dorsal branch), therefore hooks around 4th aortic arch ie. subclavian artery
  • On left side, hooks around dorsal branch of 6th aortic arch ie. ductus arteriosus

Anomalies of aortic arch:

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus – failure to close, hypertrophy of left side of heart
  2. Congenital narrowing of aorta – Preductal type (above ductus arteriosus which closes) and Postductal type (below ductus arteriosus which remains open)
  3. Right sided aortic arch – Distal part of left dorsal aorta degenerates, distal part of right dorsal aorta persists
  4. Double aortic arch – both persist, leads to dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) and dyspnea (difficulty in breathing)
  5. Abnormal right subclavian artery – 4th aortic arch degenerates, therefore arises from right 7th intersegmental artery and descending aorta

Common dorsal aorta branches:

1. Ventral:

  • Coelic artery – foregut
  • Superior mesenteric artery – midgut
  • Inferior mesenteric artery – hindgut

2. Lateral (paired):

  • Middle suprarenal artery
  • Renal artery
  • Gonadal artery

3. Posterolateral (paired):

  • Posterior intercostal arteries
  • Subcostal arteries
  • Lumbar arteries

Umbilical artery:

  1. Arises from dorsal aorta
  2. Connected to 5th lumbar intersegmental artery
  3. Looses connection to dorsal aorta
  4. 5th lumbar intersegmental artery gives a branch ie. External iliac artery
  5. Continues as internal iliac artery
Umbilical artery embryology

Development of arteries in lower limb:

Continuation of external iliac arteryFemoral artery ⇒ descends infront of thigh ⇒ curves to join sciatic artery backwards to form Poplitial artery

Continuation of Internal iliac artery ⇒ Called sciatic artery ⇒ descends in back of lower limb ⇒ to sole of foot ⇒ degenerates to form Inferior gluteal artery, peroneal artery ETC

EIA and IIA anastomose to form anterior and posterior tibial arteries

Image result for development of umbilical artery

Development of arteries in upper limb:

7th cervical intersegmental artery ⇒ Subclavian a. ⇒ Axillary a. ⇒ Brachial a. ⇒ Ulnar and Radial a. ⇒ give superficial and deep palmer arches

NB: Brachial a. also gives another branch called anterior interosseous artery. Anterior interosseous artery is replaced by median artery which is replaced by ulnar artery

Image result for development of arteries in upper limb