Female reproductive system

External genitalia/ Vulva

Blood supply: Pudendal arteries

Venous: Labial veins – drain to pudendal veins

Nerves: Urogenital plexus

  • Anterior – ilioinguinal and genital branch
  • Posterior – pudendal and posterior cutaneous nerves of thigh

Lymphatics: Superficial inguinal, deep inguinal (glans clitoris)


  • Infection of Bartholin’s glands
  • STD
  • Vulvar trauma – disruption of vessels


Location: Posterosuperior to bladder , anterior to rectum


  • Pelvic diaphragm and urogenital diaphragm – main support
  • Broad ligament – sides of uterus to pelvis
  • Round ligament – uterine horns to labia majora via inguinal canal
  • Ovarian ligament – ovaries to uterus
  • Cardinal ligament – from cervix to lateral pelvic walls, contains uterine vessels
  • Uterosacral ligament – cervix to sacrum
  • Pubocervical ligament – cervix to pubic symphysis


  • Anterior – Uterovesical pouch, superior surface bladder
  • Posterior – Rectouterine pouch, sigmoid colon
  • Lateral – Broad ligament, uterine vessels

Blood supply: Uterine and ovarian arteries

Venous: Uterine venous plexus

Nerves: Pelvic splanchnic and lumbar – inferior hypogastric plexus

Lymphatics: Iliac and sacral


  • Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus
  • Cervical cancer
  • Endometriosis – ectopic endometrial tissue usually at ovaries and uterus ligaments
  • Fibroids – benign tumors, can cause pelvic pain and infertility
  • Endometrial carcinoma – often during or after menopause



  • Anterior – Bladder fundus and urethra
  • Posterior – Rectum, anal canal, rectouterine pouch
  • Lateral – Ureter, uterine artery, levator ani

Blood supply: Uterine and vaginal arteries

Venous: Vaginal veins drain into vaginal venous plexus


  • Autonomic: Uterovaginal nerve plexus (from inferior hypogastric plexus)
  • Somatic: Deep perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve)

Lymphatics: Iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes


  • Vaginal infections – candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis (during pregnancy, diabetes, antibiotic treatment)
  • Vaginal fistula – due to long and traumatic childbirth

Image result for types of Vaginal fistula


Location: Ovarian fossa, posterior wall of broad ligament


  • Mesovarium – part of broad ligament
  • Suspensory ligament of ovary – contains neurovascular srtuctures
  • Ovarian ligament

Blood supply: Uterine and ovarian arteries


  • Sympathetic: Ovarian plexus
  • Parasympathetic: Uterine plexus

Lymphatics: Paraaortic nodes


  • Ovarian cyst
  • Tumors
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome – elevated male hormones, irregular/no periods, body and facial hair

Fallopian tubes

Image result for parts of fallopian tube

Location: Upper border of broad ligament, from uterus to abdominal cavity

Blood supply: Tubal branches of uterine and ovarian arteries


  • Sympathetic: Ovarian plexus
  • Parasympathetic: Uterine plexus

Lymphatics: Iliac, sacral, aortic nodes


  • Ligation of uterine tubes – sterilization
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Salpingitis – inflammation due to bacterial infection

These are summarized notes from various sources, mainly TeachMeAnatomy and Wikipedia