Development of liver and gall bladder

Origin: Endoderm of foregut

  • Liver bud develops from lower end of foregut
  • Liver bud divides into two parts:
  1. Smaller part: Pars cystica ⇒ forms gall bladder
  2. Large cranial part: Pars hepatica
  • Pars hepatica invades septum transversum and divides into right and left branches (right and left hepatic ducts) which branch more to form columns of hepatic cells
  • Columns of hepatic cells meet vitelline veins and break them into hepatic sinusoids
  • Mesoderm of septum transversum forms fibrous tissue stroma and capsule of liver
  • Original stalk of liver bud elongates – forms common bile duct
  • Due to rotation of stomach, common bile duct opens in posterior medial part of 2nd duodenum

Ligaments of liver:

  • Mesoderm of septum transversum between liver and anterior abdominal wall forms falciform ligament. Umbilical vein lies on inferior free margin of falciform ligament
  • Mesoderm of septum transversum between liver and stomach forms lesser omentum

Liver separates from septum transversum except “bare area” of liver

Rest of septum transversum forms part of diaphragm

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Congenital anomalies:

  1. Atresia of common bile duct
  2. Partial or complete duplication of gall bladder
  3. Congenital absence of portal vein
  4. Accessory hepatic duct