Development of vertebral column

  • Notochord forms
  • Sclerotome cells (paraxial mesoderm) surround notochord
  • Form mesenchymal vertebral column

Image result for caudal half of one sclerotome

  • Caudal half of one sclerotome and cranial half of the next, forms one vertebral mesenchyme, which goes through endochondral ossification  to form bone
  • Notochord regresses in regions of vertebral body
  • Notochord enlarges between the bodies to form nucleus pulposus

Image result for caudal half of one sclerotome notochord


Each vertebral body gives 3 processes:

  • 2 dorsal process – unite to form spinous process
  • 2 lateral process – in cervical region, unites with coastal process to form foramen transversarium. In thoracic region forms transverse process
  • 2 coastal process – in thoracic region elongates to form ribs

Image result for cervical and thoracic vertebrae